R3 Technology, Inc

 

Short Courses

R3 Technology, Inc. offers several short courses.   These courses are generally arranged as 3 day courses, but can be customized to client needs.   Course are normally arranged via organization training offices to be conducted on or near the client facility.  

The president and founder of R3 Technology, Inc, Jack Riegel, began work in the field of explosive phenomenology in 1979 and became more broadly involved with ballistics in the 1980’s.   Mr. Riegel served as the Chairman of the 12th International Symposium on Ballistics and he has served in a number of leadership positions within the ballistics community, including:

  1. President of the International Ballistics Society

  2. Chairman of the International Ballistics Committee

  3. International Ballistics Society Board of Directors

  4. Chairman of the NDIA Ballistics Division

  5. Chairman of the Aeroballistic Range Association

  6. Secretary of the Aeroballistic Range Association

  7. Editorial Board for Defence Technology Journal

  8. Editorial Board for ASTM Journal of Test and Evaluation

The courses offered by R3 Technology, Inc in ballistics and explosive technology are taught by Mr. Riegel and other members of the ballistics community with expertise in specific topics.

One course that may seem unusual is our Introduction to Fortran.   Many engineers and scientists are no longer exposed to Fortran during college.   However, there is a large base of legacy Fortran code that has been developed across the Department of Defense, NASA, and private industry such as insurance companies.   This lack of experience can make the prospect of maintaining or using the legacy programs appear daunting.   And, for most, the idea of writing a new Fortran program is not even considered.   However, significant advances continue to be made in the development of High Performance Fortran.   Our 3 day course takes a very practical approach to getting students comfortable with Fortran and demonstrates just how easy it is to get started.

The Fortran course has been taught at AMSAA and ARDEC with strong reviews.  If you are working in the field of ballistics and explosives, you should consider taking this course.  You will be surprised at how much you can do.

INTRODUCTION TO FORTRAN

Course Identifier:  R3T-FOR-001

Objective:  This 3-day course will introduce FORTRAN with the objective of showing students how to write procedural software that can rival Excel or Matlab for ease of use.  Students will learn that working with FORTRAN can be very straight-forward.   By limiting discussions to procedural programming (rather than objective programming), students will be able to produce practical software by the end of the first day.  The course will introduce many FORTRAN statements and operators and provide a solid basis for students to understand how to get more information whenever it is needed. 

By the end of the course, students will understand how to: 

¬Compile and link in a single step;

¬Compile and link as separate steps;

¬Build libraries of routines;

¬Link programs with one or more libraries;

¬Manipulate character strings, integers, reals, and double precisions

¬Define USER Defined TYPES;

¬Understand COMMON and EQUIVALENCE;

¬Use Subroutines and Functions;

¬Use CASE and SELECT statements;

¬Invoke Child Process and System calls from within FORTRAN;

¬….

Students will understand how to write software that requires minimal user interface via command line processes such as redirection and piping and will also be introduced to the use of menus in their programs.  Students will understand how to write output in a manner that allows it to be readily imported into software such as gnuplot or excel for plotting.

Students will learn how to organize and document a software module and overall problem; skills that will be beneficial for more than just programming.   Students will learn how to develop test suites and how to coordinate development of a program between two or more individuals.

Requirements:  This course does not have any prerequisites.   Numerous short example programs will introduce the student to programming, compiling, linking, and building libraries.

This course will use the gfortran compiler.   This is a free compiler that is available to run on APPLE computers, Windows Computers, and LINUX Computers.  On Windows computers, CYGWIN should be installed to create a “unix” environment.   Once CYGWIN is installed, gfortran should be downloaded and installed.   Students will need a text editor.   Notepad will work, but it is not very good.   Notepad++ is free and is much better.  Downloading and installing GnuPlot is optional, but recommended.   At least some of the installation steps will require administrative privileges.  On Apple computers, Text Wrangler is the recommended editor.  Typical of Apple, they have changed requirements with the newer operating systems such as Lion and Mavericks from the process used with Snow Leopard.  The main difference is that X-code and the “Command Line Tools”  must be installed before installing the fortran compiler.   R3 Technology can provide some general guidance in how to get things installed. 

Machine Design 1

Course Identifier:  R3T-MD-001

Objective:  This 3-day course is based on the first half of a semester-long first undergraduate course in “Machine Elements” as currently taught at The University of Texas at Austin.  The emphasis is not on designing a machine to accomplish a specific task, but instead, once the machine is designed, to size, select, or specify the parts (elements) of the machine such that it does not fail.   This course serves as a refresher for most mechanical engineers and an introduction for other engineers, physicists, etc. 

The course will review statics, rigid body dynamics, and free body diagrams. Elementary impact loading is also discussed.  All of the preceding are used determine the external forces on the parts (elements) of the machine.  These forces lead to the internal forces at a specific location.  Shear and bending moment diagrams are also presented, as they apply to determining internal forces.  The goal is to determine the location on the element where failure will occur.  The next step is to determine the most severe stress state at the critical location. Mohr’s circle (where applicable) is reviewed as a convenient way to determine the principle stresses.

Static failure theories are then presented, along with their application.  Finally, failure due to repeated loading (fatigue failure) is presented.  

Time is allocated on each of the three days to address problems specific to the student interests.   Students will be asked to submit potential topics in advance of the course.    These could include such items as blast seats, door attachments unique to military vehicles, etc

Requirements: Students should have an understanding of calculus and engineering statics.  The course only briefly reviews free body diagrams.   If additional background is required, the first one or two sessions planned for student specific problems can be moved forward and used to provide additional background as a more in-depth refresher.

Explosive Launchers

Course Identifier:  R3T-EL-001

Objective:  This 3-day course will review the history of explosive launchers such as shaped charges and explosively formed penetrators.  It will address various theories for jet formation, jet penetration, hole growth, explosively launched flyer plates, fragmenting devices, and more.

Students will develop an appreciation for the relevant physics of a given explosive launcher.   This understanding will allow the student to make informed decisions on how best to proceed with analyzing the launcher.

Analytical explosive launcher models attempt to capture the relevant physics of a problem in a formulation that is then typically solved by numerical integration.  Models of relevance to explosive launching of material have been developed by Gurney, Eichelberger, Zernow, Hirsch, Mayseless, Chou, Walker, Chanteret, and others.   A number of these models will be reviewed and comparisons with experimental data will be included. 

The course will also explore the use of hydrocodes for analyzing explosive launchers.   Issues associated with the numerical handling of large deformations will be discussed.   This is not a course in hydrocdes or how to use a specific hydrocode.   Examples of modeling explosive launchers will include models using Autodyn, EPIC, and CTH.   The pros and cons of various codes will be discussed.

Requirements: This course assumes an engineering, physics, or mathematics background.  The R3 Technology, Inc. course “Introduction to Fortran” (R3T-FOR-001) is a useful, but not essential prerequisite.   Sample graphs from one of the analytical models used in the class discussions are shown below.

 

Machine Design 2

Course Identifier:  R3T-MD-002

Objective: This 3-day course is based on the second half of a semester-long first undergraduate course in “Machine Elements” as currently taught at The University of Texas at Austin.  The emphasis is not on designing a machine to accomplish a specific task, but instead, once the machine is designed, to size, select, or specify the parts (elements) of the machine such that it does not fail.   This course serves as a refresher for most mechanical engineers and an introduction for other engineers, physicists, etc.

In this course the basic skills and understanding developed in the “prerequisite” Machine Design 101 are applied to common specific machine parts (elements.)  Elements discussed are shafts, journal bearings, rolling element bearings, spur gears, coil springs, threaded fasteners, clutches, and brakes.  Basic theory is discussed.  However, it is recognized that many machine elements are not designed “from scratch” (except by the companies that manufacture them), but are instead selected or specified.  As such, where specific data and methodologies developed by associations of manufacturers are available, these methodologies are presented.  A common thread throughout this course is failure due to repeated loading (fatigue), as this is the most common, yet difficult to analyze, failure mode. 

Time is allocated on each of the three days to address problems specific to the student interests.

Requirements: Students should have an understanding of calculus and engineering statics and should have taken Machine Design 1 (R3T-MD-001) as these lectures build on the previous course.

Analytical Terminal Ballistics

Course Identifier:  R3T-ATB-001

Objective:  This 3-day course focuses on analytical methods for assessing terminal ballistics events.  Students will develop an appreciation for the relevant physics of a given problem.   This understanding will allow the student to make informed decisions on how best to proceed with analyzing a given problem.

Models based on energy/energy rate and models based on momentum will be considered.  The course starts with a review of rigid body impacts and then moves into long rod penetration models such as TATE, ITI, and WAPEN.   Segmented and extensible rods will be considered.  Techniques for estimating obliquity and yaw will be addressed. 

The course will review assumptions behind a number of the analytical models and will also delve into solution techniques.   Some analytical models lend themselves to solutions with Matlab or Excel.   However, most have been and continue to be implemented using Fortran or another programming language such as C or Basic.    This course will focus on solutions based on implementations in Fortran and will provide several sample programs that the students can compile and use on their own computers.  It will be useful for students to have a Fortran compiler and the gnuplot program installed on their computers if they wish to compile and run the demonstration programs themselves.

Analytical terminal ballistics models attempt to capture the relevant physics of a problem in a formulation that is then typically solved by numerical integration.  As an example of capturing the relevant physics, rigid body models do not include strength of the rigid body because it is not deforming.    At another extreme, strength may be ignored because the material strength is greatly exceeded and so it behaves like a fluid.   In the transition to hypervelocity it may be necessary to consider both mechanical and thermal effects.

Requirements: This course assumes an engineering, physics, or mathematics background.   The R3 Technology, Inc. course “Introduction to Fortran” (R3T-FOR-001) is a useful, but not essential prerequisite.  The following figures were produced using a couple of the Fortran codes that are used to demonstrate several of the models.   The first plot is for an analytical model that allows up to 12 projectile segments and 12 target layers to be defined.   Lines and comments along the y-axis indicate the location of each segment and layer at time zero.   The second plot shows the tail and penetration velocity resulting from applying perturbation theory to the Tate model.

 

Interior Ballistics

Course Identifier:  R3T-IB-001

Objective:  This 3-day course will introduce interior ballistics.  It will provide a basis for understanding the relevant thermodynamics.  It will give students a solid basis for understanding the factors that limit muzzle velocity.   This introduction will use a “reference” gun as a basis for considering the performance of compressed gas guns, powder guns, and two-stage light-gas guns. 

The course will address chambrage, grain size, dissociation of propellant gas, multi-phase flow, sabots, and other topics relevant to modeling the interior ballistics of a gun system. 

Several computer programs will be used for demonstration.   These codes are written in Fortran and are available to the students.   All codes are approved for public distribution.   It will be useful for students to have a Fortran compiler and the gnuplot program installed on their computers if they wish to compile and run the demonstration programs themselves.

Requirements: This course assumes an engineering, physics, or mathematics background.  The R3 Technology, Inc. course “Introduction to Fortran” (R3T-FOR-101) a useful, but not essential prerequisite.  Sample output for a large two-stage light gas gun is shown in the figure below.   The y-axis is in feet - the dashed line segments indicate the start of the pump tube, the launch tube, and the muzzle location.  The chamber starts at the zero location.

 

Exterior Ballistics

Course Identifier:  R3T-EB-001

Objective:  This 3-day course will introduce exterior ballistics.  It will start with an historic assessment of exterior ballistics, considering the simple case of a mass influenced only by gravity and will progress through procedures developed by Corner, Siacci and others prior to the development of modern computers.   It will then consider the 3 degree of freedom problem and will then move on to consider a 6 degree of freedom solution.

Drag as a function of shape, velocity, and atmospheric conditions will be discussed and the students will be provided drag relationships for several “standard” projectile shapes.  

The course will use several analytical programs written in Fortran that solve the exterior ballistics problem using the Siacci method and a couple of different numerical processes for solving the 3 degree of freedom point mass trajectory problem.   Several computer programs will be used for demonstration.   All codes used in this course are approved for public distribution and available to the students.  It will be useful for students to have a Fortran compiler and the gnuplot program installed on their computers if they wish to compile and run the demonstration programs themselves.

At the completion of the course, students will have an understanding of the physics relevant to a given exterior ballistics problem and will be in a position to make an informed decision regarding appropriate solutions.   (Not all problems require analyzing every feature.)

Requirements: This course assumes an engineering, physics, or mathematics background.  The R3 Technology, Inc. course “Introduction to Fortran” (R3T-FOR-001) a useful, but not essential prerequisite.  The following figure shows sample predictions of projectile deviation from the line of sight for firing at various angles uphill.   The second figure simply illustrates drag functions for “common” projectile shapes.

 

General Ballistics 1

Course Identifier:  R3T-BAL-001

Objective:  This 3-day course will provide a broad introduction to the disciplines that are generally associated with the science of ballistics.  It will be split into sessions discussing interior ballistics, exterior ballistics, terminal ballistics, explosive launcher technology, and blast loading.   For each of these main topics, the students will be provided with an historic background of the scientific developments.   At the completion of the course, the student will have a basic understanding of the physics relevant to each of these areas.

Requirements: This course assumes an engineering, physics, or mathematics background, but it is not essential.

Range Design and Operation

Course Identifier:  R3T-RDO-001

Objective:  This 3-day course will consider the design and operation of ballistics and explosive ranges.   Indoor and outdoor range designs will be considered.   This is a broad-based course that is designed for engineers, range technicians, and managers.   It addresses the safety considerations of range operations.   It considers designs to minimize hazards to instrumentation and will discuss instrumentation essential to obtaining high quality data.

The course is roughly divided across the three days to consider range design the first day, range operations the second day, and a discussion of instrumentation on the third day.  

The course is expected to be relevant to engineers designing ranges or experiments/testing to be conducted on a ballistics/explosive range; technicians operations ballistics and explosive ranges, and; managers with overall responsibility for safe, effective, and efficient range operations.

Requirements: None

Explosive Technology 1

Course Identifier:  R3T-EXP-001

Objective:  This 4-day course will introduce engineers and scientists to explosives, providing the students with the understanding of how to estimate explosive properties, understand explosive initiation and propagation, shock waves and rarefactions, pop plots, gurney velocity, the Chapman-Jouget model and its relevance to military and commercial explosives, etc

The course begins with the chemistry of explosives and explains how to estimate detonation properties.  Students will be introduced to Hot Spot formation and its significance in the development of insensitive explosives.  Initiation “trains” will be discussed as well as several detonator technologies.  Students will be introduced to shock propagation and the use of Hugoniots to estimate pressures and pulse durations. 

Students will learn how to estimate the oxygen balance of an explosive and its relevance to explosive behavior.  They will be provided with a gnuplot script for estimating pressures and impulses using shock hugoniots. 

Students will be introduced to Sach’s and Hopkinson scaling, TNT equivalency, and other factors necessary to understand how explosives produce loads on structures.

Requirements: Students should have a background in science, engineering, or mathematics.  All topics will be introduced with the assumption that students have little specific background.  For example, while the introduction to the chemistry of explosives will illustrate how organic explosives can be made by group substitutions on things such as the toluene molecule, everything needed to understand the toluene molecule and how the oxidizer groups are substituted will be provided in class.